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Sowell's Survey on Late-Talking Children as reported in his book.

SURVEY RESULTS

SAMPLE SIZE:

Individuals 46

Families 44

1. EARLY CHILDHOOD: 1. Age at which parent became seriously concerned about child's inability to talk

Before age one 0

1 to 1 years 4

1 to 2 years 2

2 to 2 years 17

2 to 3 years 12

3 years + 11

2. Reason for concern about child's late talking:

Child's frustration 4

Daily problems 1

Behind schedule 31

Other 10

3. Children's general patterns:

Hand

Left-handed 2

Right-handed 43

Ambidextrous 1

Allergies

Many or severe 5

Few or mild 11

Practically none 30

Ear infections

Many or severe 15

Few or mild 8

Practically none 23

Physical skills

Clumsy 12

Average 18

Above average 16

Puzzles

Unusually good 31

Average 6

Below average 5

Not noticed 4

Fascinations

Water 19

Spinning objects 7

Spinning self 1

Other 23

None 14

4. Toys

Toys

Preferred girl toys 5

Preferred boy toys 25

No preference 16

5. Playmates

Preferences

Preferred girls 2

Preferred boys 4

No preference 37

Only boys available 1

Only girls available 3

11. FAMILY

1. Child's place in the family:

Child's place

Only child 9

First born 11

Youngest 19

Adopted 1

Other 6

Close relative who talked late?

yes 12

no 33

Relatives' children

More boys than girls 13

More girls than boys 6

No great difference 22

2. Family educational and occupational background:

Education

FATHER MOTHER

Less than high school 0 1

High school 2 2

Some college (includes associate degrees) 6 8

Finished college (4 yr.) 18 9

Postgraduate 9 15

Occupations of close relatives

OCCUPATIONS NUMBER OF FAMILIES

Accountants 23

Computer specialists 15

Engineers 26

Mathematicians 2

Physicians 5

Pilots 6

Scientists 9

Other analytical 2

*both economists

Musicians among close relatives

Yes 35

No 7

Multiple 26

Professional 12

3. Race or ethnicity

MOTHER FATHER

White 40 38

Black 2 3

Chinese or Japanese 0 1

American Indian 0 1

India Indian 0 0

Other 1 0

111. Talking

FIRST MULTI-

AGE: |FIRST WORD |WORD STATEMENT| FIRST SENTENCE |CONVERSATION|

Before 1 6 0 0 0

1 to 1 8 1 0 0

I to 2 5 3 0 0

2 to 2 9 3 0 0

2 to 3 6 6 1 0

3 to 3 5 4 5 2

3, to 4 2 7 5 7

4 to 4 2 9 9 10

4 to 5 0 2 7 4

5 + 1 3 10 14

Not yet 1 5 7 7

Integration of speech, gestures, and facial expressions

Much more so than most children the same age 12

Somewhat more so than most children the same age 6

Average for children the same age 1

Somewhat less than average for the age 8

Much less than average for the age 5

IV. Social development

AS A CHILD AS AN ADULT

Far below average 12 0

Below average 20 1

Average 6 1

Above average 7 3

Far above average I I

V. Mental ability

Intelligence quotient

NON-VERBAL TOTAL

Below 90 1 1

from 90 to 110 2 3

Above 110 1 3

Other measures

NON-VERBAL TOTAL

Below age level 0 4

Average for age level 1 3

Above average for age level 2 2

Parental assessment of child's memory

MEMORY

Very poor 0

Below average 0

Average 0

Above average 19

Extremely good 27

VI. Miscellaneous

1. Evaluations

Evaluated by medical or psychological specialists?

yes 41

no 5

First evaluation

Process itself stressful to the child?

Yes 20

No 16

Second evaluation

Process itself stressful to the child?

yes 9

no 17

Third evaluation

Process itself stressful to the child?

yes 9

no 9

Evaluators' conclusions

autistic 12

other disorder 12

no cause found 13

2. Child's likes and dislikes

LIKES DISLIKES

music 10 0

Puzzles 8 1

Building things 6 0

Computers 13 0

New things 0 3

Noise 0 9

3. Speech therapist

Used speech therapist?

yes 40

no 6

Age when therapist was used

By first birthday 3

Age one 0

Age two 19

Age three 7

Age four 7

Five or older 3

Results of speech therapy

Good 22

Bad 1

None 4

Doubtful 10

4. Toilet training:

AGE URINATION BOWEL MOVEMENTS

Before 1 0 0

1-1, 0 0

1 -2 2 2

2-2 2 1

2-3 4 3

3-3 13 9

3-4 6 8

4-4, 5 5

4-5 5 4

5 + 4 8

Not yet 3 4

VII. GROUP ACTIVITY

Has written letters to the group 22

Has written letters to individuals 15

Has phoned other member(s) 14

Has been phoned by other member(s) 13

Has met other member(s) in person 3

Always read letters and memos 34

Usually read letters and memos 3

Seldom read letters and memos 1


(1997). Thomas Sowell, Late-Talking Children.